Chadwick Expositor’s Bible Exodus

Chadwick Expositor’s Bible Exodus

Chadwick’s commentary on Exodus is a thorough commentary on this Old Testament book of the Bible.

ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
THE PROLOGUE, Exo 1:1-6.
Books linked by conjunction “And:” Scripture history a connected whole.
So is secular history organic: “Philosophy of history.” The Pentateuch being a still closer unity, Exodus rehearses the descent into Egypt.
Heredity: the family of Jacob.
Death of Joseph. Influence of Egypt on the shepherd race.
A healthy stock: good breeding. Goethe’s aphorism.
Ourselves and our descendants.

GOD IN HISTORY, Exo 1:7.
In Exodus, national history replaces biography.
Contrasted narratives of Jacob and Moses. Spiritual progress from Genesis to Exodus.
St. Paul’s view: Law prepares for Gospel, especially by our failures.
This explains other phenomena: failures in various circumstances, of innocence in Eden; of an elect family; now of a race, a nation.
Israel, failing with all advantages, needs a Messiah. Faith justifies, in Old Testament as in New.
Scripture history reveals God in this life, in all things.
True spirituality owns God in the secular: this is a gospel for our days.

ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I. THE PROLOGUE, Exo 1:1-6.
Books linked by conjunction “And:” Scripture history a connected whole.
So is secular history organic: “Philosophy of history.” The Pentateuch being a still closer unity, Exodus rehearses the descent into Egypt.
Heredity: the family of Jacob.
Death of Joseph. Influence of Egypt on the shepherd race.
A healthy stock: good breeding. Goethe’s aphorism.
Ourselves and our descendants.
GOD IN HISTORY, Exo 1:7.
In Exodus, national history replaces biography.
Contrasted narratives of Jacob and Moses. Spiritual progress from Genesis to Exodus.
St. Paul’s view: Law prepares for Gospel, especially by our failures.
This explains other phenomena: failures in various circumstances, of innocence in Eden; of an elect family; now of a race, a nation.
Israel, failing with all advantages, needs a Messiah. Faith justifies, in Old Testament as in New.
Scripture history reveals God in this life, in all things.
True spirituality owns God in the secular: this is a gospel for our days.
THE OPPRESSION, Exo 1:7-22.
Early prosperity: its dangers: political supports vain.
Joseph forgotten. National responsibilities: despotism.
Nations and their chiefs. Our subject races.
The Church and her King: imputation. Pharaoh precipitates what he fears.
Egypt and her aliens: modern parallels.
Tyranny is tyrannous even when cultured.
Our undue estrangement from the fallen: Jesus a brother. Toil crushes the spirit
Israel idolatrous. Religious dependence.
Direct interposition required. Bitter oppression.
Pharaoh drops the mask. Defeated by the human heart. The midwives.
Their falsehood. Morality is progressive.
Culture and humanity.
Religion and the child.

CHAPTER II. THE RESCUE OF MOSES, Exo 2:1-10.
Importance of the individual.
A man versus “the Time-spirit.”
The parents of Moses.
Their family: their goodly child.
Emotion helps faith, 30.
The ark in the bulrushes.
Pharaoh’s daughter and Miriam.
Guidance for good emotions: the Church for humanity.
THE CHOICE OF MOSES, Exo 2:11-15.
God employs means.
Value of endowment. Moses and his family. “The reproach of Christ.”
An impulsive act.
Impulses not accidents. The hopes of Moses.
Moses and his brethren. His flight.
MOSES IN MIDIAN, Exo 2:16-22.
Energy in disaster.
Disinterested bravery. Parallels with a variation.
The Unseen a refuge. Duty of resisting small wrongs. His wife.
A lonely heart.

CHAPTER III. THE BURNING BUSH, Exo 2:23-33.
Death of Raamses. Misery continues.
The cry of the oppressed.
Discipline of Moses.
How a crisis comes.
God hitherto unmentioned. The Angel of the Lord.
An unconsuming fire.
Inquiry: reverence. God finds, not man.
“Take off thy shoe.” “The God of thy father.”
Immortality. “My people,” not saints only.
The good land. The commission.
God with him. A strange token, 53.
A NEW NAME, Exo 3:14; Exo 6:2-3.
Why Moses asked the name of God: idolatry: pantheism.
A progressive revelation.
Jehovah. The sound corrupted. Similar superstitions yet.
What it told the Jews. Reality of being.
Jews not saved by ideas. Streams of tendency. The Self-contained. We live in our past.
And in our future.
Yet Jehovah not the impassive God of Lucretius.
The Immutable is Love. This is our help.
Human will is not paralysed.
The teaching of St. Paul. All this is practical.
This gives stability to all other revelations. Our own needs.
THE COMMISSION, Exo 3:10, Exo 3:16-22.
God comes where He sends.
The Providential man. Prudence.
Sincerity of demand for a brief respite.
God has already visited them. By trouble He transplants.
The “borrowing” of jewels.

CHAPTER IV. MOSES HESITATES, Exo 4:1-17.
Scripture is impartial: Josephus.
Hindrance from his own people. The rod.
The serpent: the leprosy.
“I am not eloquent.”
God with us. Aaron the Levite.
Responsibility of not working. The errors of Moses.
Power of fellowship. Vague fears.
With his brother, Moses will go. The Church.
This craving met by Christ.
Family affection. Examples.
MOSES OBEYS, Exo 4:18-31.
Fidelity to his employer. Reticence.
Resemblance to story of Jesus. He is the Antitype of all experiences.
Counterpoint in history. “Israel is My son.”
A neglected duty Zipporah. Was she a helpmeet?
Domestic unhappiness. History v. myth.
The failures of the good.
Men of destiny are not irresponsible.
His first followers: a joyful reception.
Spiritual joy and reaction.

CHAPTER V. PHARAOH REFUSES, Exo 5:1-23.
Moses at court again. Formidable.
Power of convictions but also of tyranny and pride. Menephtah: his story.
Was the Pharaoh drowned? The demand of Jehovah.
The refusal.
Is religion idleness? Hebrews were taskmasters.
Demoralised by slavery. They are beaten.
Murmurs against Moses. He returns to God. His remonstrance.
His disappointment. Not really irreverent.
Use of this abortive attempt.

CHAPTER VI. THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF MOSES, Exo 6:1-30.
The word Jehovah known before: its consolations now.
The new truth is often implicit in the old.
Discernment more needed than revelation. “Judgments.”
My people: your God.
The tie is of God’s binding.
Fatherhood and sonship.
Faith becomes knowledge. The body hinders the soul.
We are responsible for bodies. Israel weighs Moses down.
We may hold back the saints.
The pedigree.
Indications of genuine history.
“As a god to Pharaoh.”
We also.

CHAPTER VII. THE HARDENING OF PHARAOH’S HEART, Exo 7:3-13.
The assertion offends many.
Was he a free agent? When hardened. A.V. incorrect.
He resists five plagues spontaneously. The last five are penal.
Not “hardened” in wickedness, but in nerve. A.V. confuses three words: His heart is
(a) “hardened,”
(b) it is made “strong”
(c) “heavy.”
Other examples of these words.
The warning implied.
Moses returns with the signs.
The functions of miracle.
THE PLAGUES, Exo 7:14.
Their vast range.
Their relation to Pantheism, Idolatry, Philosophy.
And to the gods of Egypt. Their retributive fitness.
Their arrangement.
Like our Lord’s, not creative.
God in common things.
Some we inflict upon ourselves. Yet rationalistic analogies fail.
Duration of the conflict.
THE FIRST PLAGUE, Exo 7:14-25.
The probable scene.
Extent of the plague. The magicians. Its duration.
Was Israel exempt? Contrast with first miracle of Jesus.

CHAPTER VIII. THE SECOND PLAGUE, Exo 8:1-15.
Submission demanded. Severity of plague.
Pharaoh humbles himself.
“Glory over me.” Pharaoh breaks faith.
THE THIRD PLAGUE, Exo 8:16-19.
Various theories. A surprise. Magicians baffled.
What they confess.
THE FOURTH PLAGUE, Exo 8:20-32.
“Rising up early.”
Bodily pain. Beetles or flies? “A mixture.”
Goshen exempt. Pharaoh suffers. He surrenders.
Respite and treachery. Would Moses have returned?

CHAPTER IX. THE FIFTH PLAGUE, Exo 9:1-7.
First attack on life. Animals share our fortunes.
The new summons. Murrain.
Pharaoh’s curiosity.
THE SIXTH PLAGUE, Exo 9:8-12.
No warning, yet Author manifest. Ashes of the furnace.
Suffering in the flesh. The magicians again. Pharaoh’s heart “made strong.”
Dares not retaliate.
THE SEVENTH PLAGUE, Exo 9:13-35.
Expostulation not mockery.
God is wronged by slavery.
Civil liberty is indebted to religion. “Plagues upon thine heart.”
A mis-rendering: why he was not crushed.
An opportunity of escape. The storm.
Ruskin upon terrors of thunderstorm.
Pharaoh confesses sin.
Moses intercedes. The weather in history. Job’s assertion

CHAPTER X. THE EIGHTH PLAGUE, Exo 10:1-20.
Moses encouraged.
Deliverances should be remembered. A sterner rebuke. Locusts in Egypt.
Their effect. The court interferes. Yet “their hearts hardened” also.
Infatuation of Pharaoh. Parallel of Napoleon.
Women and little ones did share in festivals.
A gentle wind. Locusts. Another surrender.
Relief. Our broken vows.
THE NINTH PLAGUE, Exo 10:21-29.
Menephtah’s sun-worship.
Suddenness of the plague. Concentrated narrative.
Darkness represents death.
The Book of Wisdom upon this plague.
Isaiah’s allusions. The Pharaoh’s character.
Altercation with Moses.

CHAPTER XI. THE LAST PLAGUE ANNOUNCED, Exo 11:1-10.
This chapter supplements the last. The blow is known to be impending. Uses of its delay.
Israel shall claim wages. The menace.
Parallel with St. John.

CHAPTER XII. THE PASSOVER, Exo 12:1-28.
Birthday of a nation. The calendar.
“The congregation.” The feast is social.
The nation is based upon the family. No Egyptian house escapes.
National interdependence. The Passover a sacrifice.
What does the blood mean? Rationalistic theories. Harvest festivals.
The unbelieving point of view: what theories of sacrifice were then current? “A sacrifice was a meal.”
Human sacrifices. The Passover “unhistorical.” Kuenen rejects this view.
Phenomena were irreconcilable with it.
What is really expressed? Danger even to Jews.
Salvation by grace. Not unbought.
The lamb a ransom. All firstborn are forfeited. Tribe of Levi.
Cash payment. Effect on Hebrew literature.
Its prophetic import.
The Jew must co-operate with God: must also become His guest.
Sacred festivals. Lamb or kid. Four days reserved.
Men are sheep. Heads of houses originally sacrifice. Transition to Levites in progress under Hezekiah, complete under Josiah.
Unleavened bread. The lamb. Roast, not sodden.
Complete consumption. Judgment upon gods of Egypt.
The blood a token unto themselves. On their lintels.
The word “pass-over.”
Domestic teaching.
Many who ate the feast perished. Aliens might share.
THE TENTH PLAGUE, Exo 12:29-36.
The blow falls. Pharaoh was not “firstborn”: his son “sat upon his throne.”
The scene.
The demands of Israel. St. Augustine’s inference.
THE EXODUS, Exo 12:37-42.
The route.
Their cattle, a suggested explanation.
“Four hundred and thirty years.”

CHAPTER XIII. THE LAW OF THE FIRSTBORN, Exo 13:1.
The consecration of the firstborn.
The Levite. “They are Mine.”
Joy is hopeful. Tradition?
Phylacteries. The ass.
The Philistines. No spiritual miracle.
Education.
THE BONES OF JOSEPH, Exo 13:19.
Joseph influenced Moses.
His faith.
Circumstances overcome by soul. God in the cloud.
Hebrew poetry and modern.

CHAPTER XIV. THE RED SEA, Exo 14:1-31.
Stopped on the march.
Pharaoh presumes.
The panic.
Moses. Prayer and action. “Self-assertion”?
The midnight march.
The lost army.
ON THE SHORE, Exo 14:30-31.
Impressions deepened. “They believed in Jehovah.” So the faith of the apostles grew.

CHAPTER XV. THE SONG OF MOSES, Exo 15:1-22.
A song remembered in heaven. Its structure.
The women join. Instruments. Dances.
God the Deliverer, not Moses. “My salvation.”
Gratitude. Anthropomorphism. “Ye are gods.” “Jehovah is a Man–of war.”
The overthrow.
First mention of Divine holiness.
An inverted holiness.
“Thou shalt bring them in.”
SHUR, Exo 15:22-27.
Disillusion. Marah.
A universal danger.
Prayer, and the use of means.
“A statute and an ordinance.” Such compacts often repeated. The offered privilege.
It is still enjoyed.
“The Lord for the body.” Elim.

CHAPTER XVI. MURMURING FOR FOOD, Exo 16:1-14.
We too fear, although Divinely guarded.
They would fain die satiated.
Relief tries them as want does.
The Sabbath. A rebuke.
Moses is zealous. His “meekness.”
The glory appears.
Quails and manna.
MANNA, Exo 16:15-36.
Their course of life is changed.
A drug resembles manna.
The supernatural follows nature.
They must gather, prepare, be moderate.
Nothing over and no lack. Socialistic perversion.
Socialism. Christ in politics.
SPIRITUAL MEAT, Exo 16:15-36.
Manna is a type. When given.
An unearthly sustenance.
What is spirituality? Christ the true Manna.
Universal, daily, abundant.
The Sabbath. The pot of manna.

CHAPTER XVII. MERIBAH, Exo 17:1-7.
A greater strain. What if Israel had stood it?
They murmured against Moses. The position of Aaron. An exaggerated outcry.
Witnesses to the miracle. The rock in Horeb.
The rod. Privilege is not acceptance.
AMALEK, Exo 17:8-16.
A water-raid.
God’s sheep must become His warriors. War.
Joshua. The rod of God.
A silent prayer. Aaron and Hur must join in it.
So now. But the army must fight.
“The Lord my banner.” Unlike a myth.

CHAPTER XVIII. JETHRO, Exo 18:1-27.
Gentiles in new aspect. Church may learn from secular wisdom.
Little is said of Zipporah: Jethro’s pleasure.
A Gentile priest recognised. Religious festivity.
Jethro’s advice: its importance.
Divine help does not supersede human gift.
THE TYPICAL BEARINGS OF THE HISTORY.
Narrative is also allegory. Danger of arbitrary fancies. Example from Bunyan. Scriptural teaching.
Some resemblances are planned: others are reappearances of same principle.
So that these are evidential analogies, like Butler’s.
Others appear forced. “I called My Son out of Egypt” refers to Israel.
But the condescending phrase promised more, and the subsequent coincidence is significant.
Truths cannot all be proved like Euclid’s.

CHAPTER XIX. AT SINAI, Exo 19:1-25.
Sinai and Pentecost. The place. Ras Sufsâfeh. God speaks in nature.
Moses is stopped; the people must pledge themselves. Dedication services.
An appeal to gratitude, and a promise.
“A peculiar treasure.” “A kingdom and priests.”
The individual, and Church order. “On eagles’ wings.”
Israel consents. The Lord in the cloud. Manifestations are transient.
Precautions. The trumpet.
“The priests.” A plébiscite. Contrast between Law and Gospel: Methodius.
Theophanies.
None like this.

CHAPTER XX. THE LAW, Exo 20:1-17.
What the law did. It could not justify. It reveals obligation.
It convicts, not enables. It is an organic whole. And a challenge.
The Spirit enables: love is fulfilment of law. Luther’s paradox.
Law and Gospel contrasted. Its spiritual beauty: two noble failures.
The Jewish arrangement of the Commandments. St. Augustine’s. The Anglican. An equal division.
THE PROLOGUE, Exo 20:2.
Their experience of God.
God and the first table. The true object of adoration: men must adore. Agnosticism.
God and the second table.
Law appeals to noble motives.
THE FIRST COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:3.
Monotheism and a real God.
False creeds attractive. Spiritualism. Science indebted to Monotheism.
Unity of nature a religious truth. Strength of our experimental argument.
Informal apostacy. Luther’s position. Scripture. The Chaldeans.
Animal pleasure.
The remedy: “Thou shalt have … Me.”
THE SECOND COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:4-6.
Imagery not all idolatry. The subtler paganisms.
Spiritual worship, like a Gothic building, aspires: images lack expansiveness.
God is jealous.
The shadow of love.
Visiting sins on children.
Part of vast beneficent law.
Gospel in law.
THE THIRD COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:7.
Meaning of “in vain.”
Jewish superstition. Where swearing is wholly forbidden.
Fruitful and free use of God’s name.
THE FOURTH COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:8-11.
Law of Sabbath unique. Confession of Augsburg. Of Westminster.
Anglican position. St. Paul.
The first positive precept. Love not the abolition of the law.
Property of our friends. The word “remember.” The story of creation.
The manna. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel.
Christ’s freedom was that of a Jew. “Sabbath for man.”
Our help, not our fetter. “My Father worketh.”
THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:12.
Bridge between duty to God and to neighbour.
Father and child.
“Whosoever hateth not.” Christ and His mother. Its sanction.
THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:13.
Who is neighbour? Ethics and religion.
Science and morals.
A Divine creature. Capital punishment.
THE SEVENTH COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:14.
Justice forbids act: Christ forbids desire. Sacredness of body.
Human body connects material and spiritual worlds. Modifies, while serves.
Marriage a type.
THE EIGHTH COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:15.
Assailed by communism, by Rome. Various specious pleas.
Laws of community binding.
None may judge his own case, St. Paul enlarges the precept.
THE NINTH COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:16.
Importance of words. Various transgressions.
Slander against nations, against the race. Love.
THE TENTH COMMANDMENT, Exo 20:17.
The list of properties.
The heart. The law searches.
THE LESSER LAW, Exo 20:18 – Exo 23:33.
A remarkable code. The circumstances.
Moses fears: yet bids them fear not.
Presumption v. awe. He receives an expanded decalogue, an abridged code.
Laws should educate a people; should not outrun their capabilities.
Five subdivisions.
I. THE LAW OF WORSHIP, Exo 20:22-26.
Images again forbidden.
Splendour and simplicity. An objection.
Modesty.

CHAPTER XXI. THE LESSER LAW (continued).
II. RIGHTS OF THE PERSON, Exo 21:1-32.
The Hebrew slave. The seventh year. Year of jubilee. His family.
The ear pierced. St. Paul’s “marks of the Lord.” Assaults.
The Gentile slave.
The female slave.
Murder and blood-fiends.
Parents. Kidnappers.
Eye for eye. Mitigations of lex talionis.
Vicious cattle.
III. RIGHTS OF PROPERTY, Exo 21:33 – Exo 22:15.
Negligence: indirect responsibility: various examples.
Theft.

CHAPTER XXII. THE LESSER LAW (continued).
IV. VARIOUS ENACTMENTS, Exo 22:16 – Exo 23:19.
Disconnected precepts. No trace of systematic revision. Certain capital crimes.
SORCERY, Exo 22:18.
Abuses have recoiled against religion.
Sorcerers are impostors, but they existed, and do still.
Moses could not leave them to enlightened opinion. Propagated apostacy.
Traitors in a theocracy.
When shall witchcraft die?
THE STRANGER, Exo 22:21; Exo 23:9.
“Ye were strangers.”
A fruitful principle. Morality not expediency.
Cruelty often ignorance: Moses educates.
The widow. The borrower.
Other precepts.

CHAPTER XXIII. THE LESSER LAW (continued).
An enemy’s cattle. A false report.
Influence of multitude: the world and the Church.
Favour not the poor.
Other precepts. “A kid in his mother’s milk.”
V. ITS SANCTIONS Exo 23:20-33.
A bold transition: the Angel in Whom is “My Name.”
Not a mere messenger.
Nor the substitute of Exo 33:2-3.
Parallel verses.

CHAPTER XXIV. THE COVENANT RATIFIED. THE VISION OF GOD, Exo 24:1-18
The code is accepted, written, ratified with blood.
Exclusion and admittance. The elders see God: Moses goes farther. Theophanies of other creeds.
How could they see God?
Moses feels not satisfaction, but desire.
His progress is from vision to shadow and a Voice.
We see not each other.
St. Augustine.
The vision suits the period: not post-Exilian.
Contrast with revelation in Christ.

CHAPTER XXV. THE SHRINE AND ITS FURNITURE, Exo 25:1-40.
The God of Sinai will inhabit a tent. His other tabernacles.
The furniture is typical. Altar of incense postponed.
The ark enshrines His law and its sanctions.
The mercy-seat covers it.
Man’s homage. The table of shewbread.
The golden candlestick (lamp-stand).
THE PATTERN IN THE MOUNT, Exo 25:9-40.
Use in Hebrews. Plato.
Not a model, but an idea. Art.
Provisional institutions.
The ideal in creation, 388.–In life.

CHAPTER XXVI. THE TABERNACLE.
“Temple” an ambiguous word.
“Curtains of the Tabernacle.”
Other coverings.
The boards and sockets.
The bars. The tent.
Position of veil and of the front.

CHAPTER XXVII. THE OUTER COURT.
The altar.
The quadrangle.
General effect.

CHAPTER XXVIII. THE HOLY GARMENTS.
Their import.
The drawers. “Coat.” Head-tires. Robe of the ephod. Ephod. Jewels.
Breastplate. Urim and Thummim. Mitre. Symbolism.
THE PRIESTHOOD.
Universal desire and dread of God.
Delegates.
Scripture. First Moses.
His family passed over. The double consciousness expressed.
Messianic priesthood.

CHAPTER XXIX. CONSECRATION SERVICES.
Why consecrate at all?
Moses officiates. The offerings.
Ablution, robing, anointing.
The sin-offering.
“Without the camp.”
The burnt-offering.
The peace-offering (“ram of consecration”).
The wave-offerings.
The result.

CHAPTER XXX. INCENSE, Exo 30:1-10.
The impalpable in nature.
“The golden altar.”
Represents prayer. Needs cleansing.
A CENSUS, Exo 30:2-16.
A census not sinful. David’s transgression. The half-shekel. Equality of man.
Christ paid it.
Its employment.
THE LAVER, Exo 30:17-21.
Behind the altar. Purity of priests.
Made of the mirrors.
ANOINTING OIL AND INCENSE, Exo 30:22-38.
Their ingredients. All the vessels anointed.
Forbidden to secular uses.
Modern analogies.

CHAPTER XXXI. BEZALEEL AND AHOLIAB, Exo 31:1-18.
Secular gifts are sacred.
The Sabbath. The tables and “the finger of God.”

CHAPTER XXXII. THE GOLDEN CALF.
Sin of the people; of Aaron. God rejects them.
Intercession. The Christian antitype.

CHAPTER XXXIII. PREVAILING INTERCESSION.
The first concession. The angel.
“The Tent of the Meeting.”

CHAPTER XXXIV. THE VISION OF GOD.
To know is to desire to know. A fit season. The greater Name.
The covenant renewed. The tables. The skin of his face shone.
Lessons.

CHAPTER XXXV. CONCLUSION, Exodus 35-Exodus 40.
The people obey.
The forming of the nation: review.
Early prosperity: its dangers: political supports vain.
Joseph forgotten. National responsibilities: despotism.
Nations and their chiefs. Our subject races.
The Church and her King: imputation. Pharaoh precipitates what he fears.
Egypt and her aliens: modern parallels.
Tyranny is tyrannous even when cultured.
Our undue estrangement from the fallen: Jesus a brother. Toil crushes the spirit
Israel idolatrous. Religious dependence.
Direct interposition required. Bitter oppression.
Pharaoh drops the mask. Defeated by the human heart. The midwives.
Their falsehood. Morality is progressive.
Culture and humanity.
Religion and the child.

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