Strong Augustus – Systematic Theology

Strong Augustus – Systematic Theology

Table of Contents of Strong Augustus – Systematic Theology

PART I.—PROLEGOMENA
Chapter I.—Idea of Theology
I.—Definition of Theology
II.—Aim of Theology
III.—Possibility of Theology—grounded in
1.The existence of a God
2.Man’s capacity for the knowledge of God
3.God’s revelation of himself to man
IV.—Necessity of Theology
V.—Relation of Theology to Religion
Chapter II.—Material of Theology
I.—Sources of Theology
1.Scripture and Nature
2.Scripture and Rationalism
3.Scripture and Mysticism
4.Scripture and Romanism
II.—Limitations of Theology
III.—Relations of Material to Progress in Theology
Chapter III.—Method of Theology
I.—Requisites to the study of Theology
II.—Divisions of Theology
III.—History of Systematic Theology
IV.—Order of Treatment
V.—Text-Books in Theology
PART II.—THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
Chapter I.—Origin of our Idea of God’s Existence
I.—First Truths in General
II.—The Existence of God a First Truth
1.Its universality
2.Its necessity
3.Its logical independence and priority
III.—Other supposed Sources of the Idea
IV.—Contents of this Intuition
Chapter II.—Corroborative Evidences of God’s Existence
I.—The Cosmological Argument
II.—The Teleological Argument
III.—The Anthropological Argument
IV.—The Ontological Argument
Chapter III.—Erroneous Explanations, and Conclusion
I.—Materialism
II.—Materialistic Idealism
III.—Idealistic Pantheism
IV.—Ethical Monism
PART III.—THE SCRIPTURES A REVELATION FROM GOD
Chapter I.—Preliminary Considerations
I.—Reasons a priori for expecting a Revelation from God
II.—Marks of the Revelation man may expect
III.—Miracles as attesting a Divine Revelation
1.Definition of Miracle
2.Possibility of Miracles
3.Probability of Miracles
4.Amount of Testimony necessary to prove a Miracle
5.Evidential Force of Miracles
6.Counterfeit Miracles
IV.—Prophecy as attesting a Divine Revelation
V.—Principles of Historical Evidence applicable to the Proof of a Divine Revelation
1.As to Documentary Evidence
2.As to Testimony in General
Chapter II.—Positive Proofs that the Scriptures are a Divine Revelation
I.—Genuineness of the Christian Documents
1.Genuineness of the Books of the New Testament
1st.The Myth-theory of Strauss
2d.The Tendency-theory of Baur
3d.The Romance-theory of Renan
4th.The Development-theory of Harnack
2.Genuineness of the Books of the Old Testament
The Higher Criticism in General
The Authorship of the Pentateuch in particular
II.—Credibility of the Writers of the Scriptures
III.—Supernatural Character of the Scripture Teaching
1.Scripture Teaching in General
2.Moral System of the New Testament
Heathen Systems of Morality
3.The Person and Character of Christ
4.The Testimony of Christ to himself
IV.—Historical Results of the Propagation of Scripture Doctrine
Chapter III.—Inspiration of the Scriptures
I.—Definition of Inspiration
II.—Proof of Inspiration
III.—Theories of Inspiration
1.The Intuition-theory
2.The Illumination-theory
3.The Dictation-theory
4.The Dynamical theory
IV.—The Union of the Divine and Human Elements in Inspiration
V.—Objections to the Doctrine of Inspiration
1.Errors in matters of Science
2.Errors in matters of History
3.Errors in Morality
4.Errors of Reasoning
5.Errors in Quoting or Interpreting the Old Testament
6.Errors in Prophecy
7.Certain Books unworthy of a Place in inspired Scripture
8.Portions of the Scripture Books written by others than the Persons to whom they are ascribed
9.Sceptical or Fictitious Narratives
10.Acknowledgment of the Non-inspiration of Scripture Teachers and their Writings
PART IV.—THE NATURE, DECREES, AND WORKS OF GOD
Chapter I.—The Attributes of God
I.—Definition of the term Attributes
II.—Relation of the Divine Attributes to the Divine Essence
III.—Methods of Determining the Divine Attributes,
IV.—Classification of the Attributes
V.—Absolute or Immanent Attributes
First Division.—Spirituality, and Attributes therein involved
1.Life
2.Personality
Second Division.—Infinity, and Attributes therein involved
1.Self-existence
2.Immutability
3.Unity
Third Division.—Perfection, and Attributes therein involved
1.Truth
2.Love
3.Holiness
VI.—Relative or Transitive Attributes
First Division.—Attributes having relation to Time and Space
1.Eternity
2.Immensity
Second Division.—Attributes having relation to Creation
1.Omnipresence
2.Omniscience
3.Omnipotence
Third Division.—Attributes having relation to Moral Beings
1.Veracity and Faithfulness, or Transitive Truth
2.—Mercy and Goodness, or Transitive Love
3.Justice and Righteousness, or Transitive Holiness
VII.—Rank and Relations of the several Attributes
1.Holiness the Fundamental Attribute in God
2.The Holiness of God the Ground of Moral Obligation
Chapter II.—Doctrine of the Trinity
I.—In Scripture there are Three who are recognized as God
1.Proofs from the New Testament
A.The Father is recognized as God
B.Jesus Christ is recognized as God
C.The Holy Spirit is recognized as God
2.Intimations of the Old Testament
A.Passages which seem to teach Plurality of some sort in the Godhead
B.Passages relating to the Angel of Jehovah
C.Descriptions of the Divine Wisdom and Word
D.Descriptions of the Messiah
II.—These Three are so described in Scripture, that we are compelled to conceive them as distinct Persons
1.The Father and the Son are Persons distinct from each other
2.The Father and the Son are Persons distinct from the Spirit
3.The Holy Spirit is a Person
III.—This Tripersonality of the Divine Nature is not merely economic and temporal, but is immanent and eternal
1.Scripture Proof that these distinctions of Personality are eternal
2.Errors refuted by the Scripture Passages
A.The Sabellian
B.The Arian
IV.—While there are three Persons, there is but one Essence
V.—These three Persons are Equal
1.These Titles belong to the Persons
2.Qualified Sense of these Titles
3.Generation and Procession consistent with Equality
VI.—The Doctrine of the Trinity inscrutable, yet not self-contradictory, but the Key to all other Doctrines
1.The Mode of this Triune Existence is inscrutable
2.The Doctrine of the Trinity is not self-contradictory
3.The Doctrine of the Trinity has important relations to other Doctrines
Chapter III.—The Decrees of God
I.—Definition of Decrees
II.—Proof of the Doctrine of Decrees
1.From Scripture
2.From Reason
A.From the Divine Foreknowledge
B.From the Divine Wisdom
C.From the Divine Immutability
D.From the Divine Benevolence
III.—Objections to the Doctrine of Decrees
1.That they are inconsistent with the Free Agency of Man
2.That they take away all Motive for Human Exertion
3.That they make God the Author of Sin
IV.—Concluding Remarks
1.Practical Uses of the Doctrine of Decrees
2.True Method of Preaching the Doctrine
Chapter IV.—The Works of God, or the Execution of the Decrees
Section I.—Creation
I.—Definition of Creation
II.—Proof of the Doctrine
1.Direct Scripture Statement
2.Indirect Evidence from Scripture
III.—Theories which oppose Creation
1.Dualism
2.Emanation
3.Creation from Eternity
4.Spontaneous Generation
IV.—The Mosaic Account of Creation
1.Its Twofold Nature
2.Its Proper Interpretation
V.—God’s End in Creation
1.The Testimony of Scripture
2.The Testimony of Reason
VI.—Relation of the Doctrine of Creation to other Doctrines
1.To the Holiness and Benevolence of God
2.To the Wisdom and Free Wall of God
3.To Christ as the Revealer of God
4.To Providence and Redemption
5.To the Observance of the Sabbath
Section II.—Preservation
I.—Definition of Preservation
II.—Proof of the Doctrine of Preservation
1.From Scripture
2.From Reason
III.—Theories which virtually deny the Doctrine of Preservation
1.Deism
2.Continuous Creation
IV.—Remarks upon the Divine Concurrence
Section III.—Providence
I.—Definition of Providence
II.—Proof of the Doctrine of Providence
1.Scriptural Proof
2.Rational Proof
III.—Theories opposing the Doctrine of Providence
1.Fatalism
2.Casualism
3.Theory of a merely General Providence
IV.—Relations of the Doctrine of Providence
1.To Miracles and Works of Grace
2.To Prayer and its Answer
3.To Christian Activity
4.To the Evil Acts of Free Agents
Section IV.—Good and Evil Angels
I.—Scripture Statements and Intimations
1.As to the Nature and Attributes of Angels
2.As to their Number and Organization
3.As to their Moral Character
4.As to their Employments
A. The Employments of Good Angels
B. The Employments of Evil Angels
II.—Objections to the Doctrine of Angels
1.To the Doctrine of Angels in General
2.To the Doctrine of Evil Angels in Particular
III.—Practical Uses of the Doctrine of Angels
1.Uses of the Doctrine of Good Angels
2.Uses of the Doctrine of Evil Angels
PART V.—ANTHROPOLOGY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF MAN
Chapter I.—Preliminary
I.—Man a Creation of God and a Child of God
II.—Unity of the Race
1.Argument from History
2.Argument from Language
3.Argument from Psychology
4.Argument from Physiology
III.—Essential Elements of Human Nature
1.The Dichotomous Theory
2.The Trichotomous Theory
IV.—Origin of the Soul
1.The Theory of Preëxistence
2.The Creatian Theory
3.The Traducian Theory
V.—The Moral Nature of Man
1.Conscience
2.Will
Chapter II.—The original state of man
I.—Essentials of Man’s Original State
1.Natural Likeness to God, or Personality
2.Moral Likeness to God, or Holiness
A.The Image of God as including only Personality
B.The Image of God as consisting simply in Man’s Natural Capacity for Religion
II.—Incidents of Man’s Original State
1.Results of Man’s Possession of the Divine Image
2.Concomitants of Man’s Possession of the Divine Image
1st.The Theory of an Original Condition of Savagery
2nd.The Theory of Comte as to the Stages of Human Progress
Chapter III.—Sin, or Man’s State of Apostasy
Section I.—The Law of God
I.—Law in General
II.—The Law of God in Particular
1.Elemental Law
2.Positive Enactment
III.—Relation of the Law to the Grace of God
Section II.—Nature of Sin
I.—Definition of Sin
1.Proof
2.Inferences
II.—The Essential Principle of Sin
1.Sin as Sensuousness
2.Sin as Finiteness
3.Sin as Selfishness
Section III.—Universality of Sin
I.—Every human being who has arrived at moral consciousness has committed acts, or cherished dispositions, contrary to the Divine Law
II.—Every member of the human race, without exception, possesses a corrupted nature, which is a source of actual sin, and is itself sin
Section IV.—Origin of Sin in the Personal Act of Adam
I.—The Scriptural Account in Genesis
1.Its General Character not Mythical or Allegorical, but Historical
2.The Course of the Temptation, and the resulting Fall
II.—Difficulties connected with the Fall, considered as the personal Act of Adam
1.How could a holy being fall?
2.How could God justly permit Satanic Temptation?
3.How could a Penalty so great be justly connected with Disobdience to so slight a Command?
III.—Consequences of the Fall — so far as respects Adam
1.Death
A. Physical Death or the Separation of the Soul from the Body
B. Spiritual Death, or the Separation of the Soul from God
2.Positive and formal Exclusion from God’s Presence
Section V.—Imputation of Adam’s Sin to his Posterity
Scripture Teaching as to Race-sin and Race-responsibility
I.—Theories of Imputation
1.The Pelagian Theory, or Theory of Man’s Natural Innocence
2.The Arminian Theory, or Theory of voluntarily appropriated Depravity
3.The New-School Theory, or Theory of uncondemnable Vitiosity
4.The Federal Theory, or Theory of Condemnation by Covenant
5.Theory of Mediate Imputation, or Theory of Condemnation for Depravity
6.Augustinian Theory, or Theory of Adam’s Natural Headship
Exposition of Rom_5:12-19
Tabular View of the various Theories of Imputation
II.—Objections to the Augustinian Theory of Imputation
Section VI.—Consequences of sin to Adam’s posterity
I.—Depravity
1.Depravity Partial or Total?
2.Ability or Inability?
II.—Guilt
1.Nature of Guilt
2.Degrees of Guilt
III.—Penalty
1.Idea of Penalty
2.Actual Penalty of Sin
Section VII.—The salvation of infants
PART VI.—SOTERIOLOGY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF SALVATION THROUGH THE WORK OF CHRIST AND OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
Chapter I.—Christology, or the redemption wrought by christ
Section I.—Historical Preparation for Redemption
I.—Negative Preparation, in the History of the Heathen World
II.—Positive Preparation, in the History of Israel
Section II.—The Person of Christ
I.—Historical. Survey of dews respecting the Person of Christ
1.The Ebionites
2.The Docetæ
3.The Arians
4.The Apollinarians
5.The Nestorians
6.The Eutychains
7.The Orthodox Doctrine
II.—The two Natures of Christ,—their Reality and Integrity
1.The Humanity of Christ
A. Its Reality
B. Its Integrity
2.The Deity of Christ
III.—The Union of the two Natures in one Person
1.Proof of this Union
2.Modern Misrepresentations of this Union
A. The Theory of Gess and Beecher, that the Humanity of Christ is a Contracted and Metamorphosed Deity
B. The Theory of Dorner and Rothe, that the Union between the Divine and the Human Natures is not completed by the Incarnating Act
3.The Real Nature of this Union
Section III.—The Two States of Christ
I.—The State of Humiliation
1.The Nature of Christ’s Humiliation
A. The Theory of Thomasius, Delitzsch, and Crosby, that the Humiliation consisted in the Surrender of the Relative Attributes
B. The Theory that the Humiliation consisted in the Surrender of the Independent Exercise of the Divine Attributes
2.The Stages of Christ’s Humiliation
Exposition of Php_2:5-9
II.—The State of Exaltation
1.The Nature of Christ’s Exaltation
2.The Stages of Christ’s Exaltation
Section IV.—The offices of christ
I.—The Prophetic Office of Christ
1.The Nature of Christ’s Prophetic Work
2.The Stages of Christ’s Prophetic Work
II.—The Priestly Office of Christ
1.Christ’s Sacrificial Work, or the Doctrine of the Atonement
General Statement of the Doctrine
A. Scriptural Methods of Representing the Atonement
B. The Institution of Sacrifice, especially as found in the Mosaic System
C. Theories of the Atonement
1st. The Socinian, or Example Theory of the Atonement
2d. The Bushnellian, or Moral-Influence Theory of the Atonement
3d. The Grotian, or Governmental Theory of the Atonement
4th. The Irvingian Theory, or Theory of gradually extirpated Depravity
5th. The Anselmic, or Commercial Theory of the Atonement
6th. The Ethical Theory of the Atonement
First, The Atonement as related to Holiness in God
Exposition of Rom_3:25-26
Secondly, The Atonement as related to Humanity in Christ
Exposition of 2Co_5:21
D. Objections to the Ethical Theory of the Atonement
E. The Extent of the Atonement
2.Christ’s Intercessory Work
III.—The Kingly Office of Christ
Chapter II.—The Reconciliation oF man to God, or the Application of Redemption Through the Work of the Holy Spirit
Section I.—The Application of Christ’s Redemption, in its Preparation
I.—Election
1.Proof of the Doctrine of Election
2.Objections to the Doctrine of Election
II.—Calling
A. Is God’s General Call Sincere?
B. Is God’s Special Call Irresistible?
Section II.—The Application of Christ’s Redemption, in its Actual Beginning
I.—Union with Christ
1.Scripture Representations of this Union
2.Nature of this Union
3.Consequences of this Union
II.—Regeneration
1.Scripture Representations
2.Necessity of Regeneration
3.The Efficient Cause of Regeneration
4.The Instrumentality used in Regeneration
5.The Nature of the Change wrought in Regeneration
III.—Conversion
1.Repentance
Elements of Repentance
Explanations of the Scripture Representations
2.Faith
Elements of Faith
Explanations of the Scripture Representations
IV.—Justification
1.Definition of Justification
2.Proof of the Doctrine of Justification
3.Elements of Justification
4.Relation of Justification to God’s Law and Holiness
5.Relation of Justification to Union with Christ and the Work of the Spirit
6.Relation of Justification to Faith
7.Advice to Inquirers demanded by a Scriptural View of Justification
Section III.—The Application of Christ’s Redemption, in its Continuation
I.—Sanctification
1.Definition of Sanctification
2.Explanations and Scripture Proof
3.Erroneous Views refuted by the Scripture Passages
A. The Antinomian
B. The Perfectionist
II.—Perseverance
1.Proof of the Doctrine of Perseverance
2.Objections to the Doctrine of Perseverance
PART VII.—ECCLESIOLOGY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH
Chapter I.—The Constitution of the Church, or Church Polity
I.—Definition of the Church
1.The Church, like the Family and the State, is an Institution of Divine Appointment
2.The Church, unlike the Family and the State, is a Voluntary Society
II.—Organization of the Church
1.The Fact of Organization
2.The Nature of this Organization
3.The Genesis of this Organization
III.—Government of the Church
1.Nature of this Government in General
A.Proof that the Government of the Church is Democratic or Congregational
B.Erroneous Views as to Church Government, refuted by the Scripture Passages
(a) The World-church Theory, or the Romanist View
(b) The National-church Theory, or the Theory of Provincial or National Churches
2.Officers of the Church
A.The Number of Offices in the Church is two
B.The Duties belonging to these Offices
C.Ordination of Officers
(a) What is Ordination?
(b) Who are to Ordain?
3.Discipline of the Church
A.Kinds of Discipline
B.Relation of the Pastor to Discipline
IV.—Relation of Local Churches to one another
1.The General Nature of this Relation is that of Fellowship between Equals
2.This Fellowship involves the Duty of Special Consultation with regard to Matters affecting the common Interest
3.This Fellowship may be broken by manifest Departures from the Faith or Practice of the Scriptures on the part of any Church
Chapter II.—The Ordinances of The Church
I.—Baptism
1.Baptism an Ordinance of Christ
2.The Mode of Baptism
A.The Command to Baptize is a Command to Immerse
B.No Church has the Right to Modify or Dispense with this Command of Christ
3.The Symbolism of Baptism
A.Expansion of the Statement as to the Symbolism of Baptism
B.Inferences from the Passages referred to
4.The Subjects of Baptism
A.Proof that only Persons giving Evidence of being Regenerated are proper Subjects of Baptism
B.Inferences from the Fact that only Persons giving Evidence of being Regenerate are proper Subjects of Baptism
C.Infant Baptism
(a) Infant Baptism without Warrant in the Scripture
(b) Infant ant Baptism expressly Contradicted by Scripture
(c) Its Origin in Sacramental Conceptions of Christianity
(d) The Reasoning by which it is supported Unscripbuml, Unsound, and Dangerousin its Tendency
(e) The Lack of Agreement among Pedobaptists
(f) The Evil Effects of Infant Baptism
II.—The Lord’s Supper
1.The Lord’s Supper an Ordinance instituted by christ
2.The Mode of Administering the Lord’s Supper
3.The Symbolism of the Lord’s Supper
A.Expansion of the Statement as to the Symbolism of the Lord’s Supper
B.Inferences from this Statement
4.Erroneous Views of the Lord’s Supper
A.The Romanist view
B.The Lutheran and High Church View
5.Prerequisites to Participation in the Lord’s Supper
A.There are Prerequisites
B.Laid down by Christ and his Apostles
C.The Prerequisites are Four
First,—Regeneration
Secondly,—Baptism
Thirdly,—Church Membership
Fourthly,—An Orderly Walk
D.The Local Church is the Judge whether these Prerequisites are fulfilled
E.Special Objections to Open Communion
PART VIII.—ESCHATOLOGY, OR THE DOCTRINE OF FINAL THINGS
I.—Physical Death
That this is not Annihilation, argued:
1.Upon Rational Grounds
2.Upon Scriptural Grounds
II.—The Intermediate State
1.Of the Righteous
2.Of the Wicked
Refutation of the two Errors:
(a) That the Soul sleeps, between Death and the Resurrection
(b) That the Suffering of the Intermediate State is Purgatorial
Concluding Remark
III.—The Second Coming of Christ
1.The Nature of Christ’s Coming
2.The Time of Christ’s Coming
3.The Precursors of Christ’s Coming
4.Relation of Christ’s Second Coming to the Millennium
IV.—The Resurrection
1.The Exegetical Objection
2.The Scientific Objection
V.—The Last Judgment
1.The Nature of the Final Judgment
2.The Object of the Final Judgment
3.The Judge in the Final Judgment
4.The Subjects of the Final Judgment
5.The Grounds of the Final Judgment
VI.—The Final States of the Righteous and of the Wicked
1.Of the Righteous
A.Is Heaven a Place as well as a State?
B.Is this Earth to be the Heaven of the Saints?
2.Of the Wicked
A.Future Punishment is not Annihilation
B.Punishment after Death excludes new Probation and ultimate Restoration
C.This Future Punishment is Everlasting
D.Everlasting Punishment is not inconsistent with God’s Justice
E.Everlasting Punishment is not inconsistent with God’s Benevolence
F.Preaching of Everlasting Punishment is not a Hindrance to the Success of the Gospel

Systematic Theology By A H Strong
Systematic Theology By A H Strong
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